The IPCA-15 (National Consumer Price Index – Extended 15), considered a preview of official inflation (IPCA), recorded a rise of 1.73% in April, after being 0.95% in March. This is the biggest change for the month of April in 27 years — since 1995 — when the index was 1.95%. The result is also the highest monthly variation of the indicator since February 2003 (2.19%).
Considering the accumulated of the last 12 months, the index was 12.03%, above the 10.79% registered in the 12 immediately previous months and the BC (Central Bank) target for inflation this year, of 3.5%, with a margin of tolerance of plus or minus 1.5 percentage points — that is, ranging from 2% to 5%.
In the year, the IPCA-15 accumulates a high of 4.31%. The data were released today by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics).
Transport pulls up because of fuel
Prices in the Transport group were the ones that weighed the most on the IPCA-15 this month. The sector registered an increase of 3.43%, driven mainly by the increase in the price of gasoline, which rose by 7.51%.
Gasoline contributed with the greatest individual impact on the index for the month (0.48 pp), reflecting the readjustment in the average price of fuel at refineries. The prices of diesel oil (13.11%), ethanol (6.60%) and vehicular gas (2.28%) also rose.
The group of food and beverages was the second that most influenced the result of April, advancing 2.25%. The percentage was recorded due to the increase in the price of items consumed at home, which was 3%.
Here’s which foods recorded the biggest increases:
Tomato: 26.17%Carrots: 15.02%Long Life Milk: 12.21%Soybean Oil: 11.47%English Potatoes: 9.86%French Bread: 4.36%
Food outside the home, in turn, slowed down in April compared to last month, when the group had a high of 0.52% — this month the percentage increase was 0.28%. Meanwhile, the meal went from 0.25% in March to 0.45% in April. Snacks followed the opposite trend, going from 0.92% to 0.07%.
Rising gas had the biggest impact on housing
The rise in bottled gas (8.09%) had the greatest impact on housing, representing a 0.11 pp increase in the group, which was 1.73%. Piped gas prices also rose (3.31%). The second largest contribution in the group was electricity, which rose 1.92% and was responsible for 0.09 pp
Airfares, which had dropped -7.55% in March, rose 9.43% in April. The prices of voluntary vehicle insurance (3.03%) accelerated for the eighth consecutive month, accumulating a 23.46% change in the last 12 months. There were also increases in the prices of taxis (4.36%), subway tickets (1.66%) and urban buses (0.75%).
All clothing items (1.97%) rose in April, including jewelry (0.61%), whose prices had fallen in March (-0.53%). The biggest contribution, however, came from women’s clothing, with an increase of 2.70%.
The group health and personal care (0.47%) slowed down in relation to March (1.30%) due to personal hygiene items (-0.87%), which had risen 3.98%. Pharmaceuticals, on the other hand, had a rise of 3.37%, after the authorization of the readjustment of up to 10.89% in the price of medicines, as of April 1st.
With the exception of communication (-0.05%), all groups of products and services surveyed increased in April. The other groups were between 0.05% of education and 0.94% of articles of residence.
How is the IPCA-15 calculated?
The price collection period, which takes place in commercial and service establishments, public service concessionaires and households (for rent and condominium collection), runs from the 16th of the previous month to the 15th of the current month.
Nine groups of products and services are considered: food and beverages; household articles; Communication; personal expenses; education; housing; health and personal care; transport and clothing. They are subdivided into other items. Altogether, the price changes of 465 sub-items are considered.
The IPCA-15 measures inflation for which part of the population?
The index covers families with a monthly income of 1 to 40 times the minimum wage, whatever the source of income, and living in urban areas in the metropolitan regions of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza and Belém, in addition to the Federal District and the municipality of Goiânia.